Cheney Middle School

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DESIRED VOCABULARY

Vocabulary & Definitions
This information is to be mastered by eighth grade. You will hear instructors use this information in class, and students will use this information for written assessments.

Grade 6-8 Health and Fitness Vocabulary Words and Definitions

Activity-the state of being active and moving
Activity Pyramid-a pyramid of activities that can help develop a fitness plan
Adolescence-the time period between the beginning of puberty and adulthood
Aerobic Exercise-steady activity in which the heart can supply all the oxygen the muscles need
Agility-the ability to change the position of your body quickly and to control your body’s movements

Anaerobic Exercise-physical activity done in short, fast bursts where the heart cannot supply blood and oxygen as fast as muscles use it
Anorexia Nervosa-an eating disorder that involves self-starvation, a distorted body image, and low body weight
Asthma-a disorder that causes the airways that carry air into the lungs to become narrow and to become clogged with mucus
Balance-the ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving
Balanced Diet-eating and drinking the right amount of nutrients for a health balanced diet

Basal Metabolic Rate-(BMR)-the amount of energy the body uses just to keep living
Bend-movement that causes the formation of a curve
Blood Pressure-a force of blood against the artery walls; normal is ~ 120/80
Body Composition-all of the tissues that together make up the body; bone, muscle, skin, fat, body organs
Body Mass Index (BMI)-a ratio that allows you to assess your body size in relation to your height and weight

Bulimia Nervosa-an eating disorder in which an individual repeatedly eats large amounts of food and then uses behaviors such as vomiting or using laxatives to rid the body of the food
Caloric Expenditure-the amount of calories used during daily activities and exercise
Calorie-a unit of energy found in food
Calorie requirements for boys and girls-
An active 15-year old boy needs about 3,000 Calories per day
An active 15-year old girl needs about 2,300 Calories per day
Cancer-any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division

Carbohydrate-a nutrient contained in sugars and starches that provides energy
Cardiorespiratory Endurance-the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to use and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)-a disease that results from progressive damage to the heart and blood vessels
Cardiovascular System-body system that includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, and functions by carrying oxygen and nutrients to cells and removing cell wastes
Cholesterol-a fat-like substance found in animal cells and some foods such as meats, dairy products, and egg yolks

Circulatory System-your body’s internal transport system which moves blood through the body
Cool down-a series of activities to help the body recover after a workout; usually consists of a heart cool-down (movements done at a slower pace than the workout to slow the heart) and a muscle cool-down and stretch (stretching exercises; stretch without bouncing)
Cooperation-working together for the good of all
Coordination-the ability to use your senses together with your body parts, or to use two or more body parts together
Curl-ups/Sit-Ups-a measurement of strength and endurance of the abdominal muscles

Dance-taking a series of rhythmical steps (and movements) in time to music
Dehydration-lack of adequate amount of water
Diabetes-a disease in which a person’s body cannot regulate the level of sugar
Diet-a selection of foods
Endurance-the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued

Energy Balance-the amount of food energy you take in is equal to the amount of energy you use
Essential Nutrients-carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
*Carbohydrate-a nutrient contained in sugars and starches that provides energy
*Fat-is a nutrient that provides energy, helps growth and repairs cells
*Protein-a nutrient that builds and repairs body cells
*Vitamin-a nutrient needed in small amounts for growth and repair of body cells
*Mineral-a nutrient that performs many functions in regulating cell activity
*Water-a clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless liquid which is essential for
almost every function
Etiquette-rules governing socially acceptable behavior
Exercise-purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and that improves or maintains personal fitness
Exercise Stages:
1. Warm Up-any activity that gets the body ready for exercise and prevents injury
2. Stretch- any activity that loosens muscles and increases flexibility
3. Workout-physical activity to improve your fitness
4. Cool down-a series of activities to help the body recover after a workout; usually consists of a heart cool-down (movements done at a slower pace than the workout to slow the heart) and a muscle cool-down and stretch (stretching exercises; stretch without bouncing)

FITT Principle: A formula in which each letter represents a factor important for determining the correct amount of physical activity F=Frequency, I=Intensity, T=Time, T=Type
*Frequency-how often you do the activity each week
*Intensity-how hard you work at the activity per session
*Time-how long you work out at each session
*Type-which activities you select
FITT Principle for Cardiovascular Endurance:
Frequency- exercise 3-5 times per week
Intensity-train at 60-85% of target heart rate zone
Time-20-60 minutes per session is recommended
Type-any aerobic activity that keeps heart rate within your target heart rate zone is good
FITT Principle for Muscular Endurance:
Frequency-weight train 2-4 times per week
Intensity-add or maintain weight and repetition during the workout
Time-a total workout can be about 30-60 minutes
Type-an activity that allows the muscles to perform a physical task over a period of time without becoming fatigued (resistance training, yoga, Pilates)
To build muscular endurance, lift lighter weight (less resistance) with more (8-15) repetitions.
FITT Principle for Muscular Strength:
Frequency-weight train 2-4 times per week
Intensity-for teens, 60%-75% of 1RM for 8-12 repetitions
Select a weight that you can lift at least 8 times but no more than 12 times. The weight being lifted is called the resistance. Each lift is called a repetition. Repetitions are the number of times an exercise is repeated. A fixed number of repetitions followed by a rest period is called a set. Rest periods between sets are between 1 and 3 minutes long. Do 1-3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for all the major muscle groups.
Time-a total workout can be about 30-60 minutes
Type-anaerobic activities such as weight lifting and sit-ups tend to develop muscular strength and endurance.
To build strength, you should lift heavier weights (more resistance) with fewer (3-8) repetitions.
FITT Principle for Flexibility:
Frequency-daily stretching
Intensity-stretch muscles and hold beyond its normal length at a comfortable stretch
Time- hold stretch for 10-15 seconds with the stretching workout lasting 15-30 minutes
Type-use stretches that allow the body to move through the full range of motion

Fat-is a nutrient that provides energy, help growth and repair cells, and dissolve and carry certain vitamins to cells
Fat Free Mass-all body mass excluding fat (bone, muscle, organs, etc)
Fitness- the ability of the body to perform daily physical activities without getting out of breath, sore, or overly tired
Fitnessgram-a group of physical fitness assessments developed specifically for youth
Fitness Goals-steps used to improve one’s physical fitness

Fitness Log-a notebook used to record one’s fitness activities
Flexed Arm Hang-isometric exercise that tests the endurance of some arm and shoulder muscles-the ability to move the joints through a full range of motion
Food Guide Pyramid-a tool for choosing a healthy diet by selecting a recommended number of servings from each of the food groups
Frequency-how often you do the activity each week

Gallop-a two-beat stride during which both legs are off the ground simultaneously, either right foot stays back and left foot is forward or left foot stays back and right foot is forward, Toe-to-heel.
Goal Setting-a plan to determine ahead of time what is expected to be accomplished and how it can be accomplished
Grains-foodstuff prepared from the starchy grains of cereal grasses
Health-state of well-being in which all of the components of health: physical, emotional, social, mental/intellectual, spiritual, and environmental are in balance
Health Education-the providing of accurate health information to help people make healthy choices

Health-Related Fitness: parts of physical fitness that help a person stay healthy; includes body composition, cardiovascular fitness, flexibility, muscular endurance, and muscular strength
Body Composition-all of the tissues that together make up the body; bone,
muscle, skin fat body organs
Cardiorespiratory Endurance- the ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to use and send fuel and oxygen to the body’s tissues during long periods of moderate-to-vigorous activity
Flexibility-the ability to move the joints through a full range of motion
Muscular Endurance-the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued
Muscular Strength-the amount of force a muscle can exert
Heart Disease- a disease that results from progressive damage to the heart and blood vessels (also known as cardiovascular disease-CVD)
Heart Rate-the number of times the heart beats per minute
Maximum Target Heart Rate (MHR)-is the maximum number of times your heart should beat per minute while doing any physical activity

Resting Heart Rate (RHR)-the number of times the heart beats per minute while at rest
Target Heart Rate (THR)-a heart rate that should be reached during exercise to gain cardiorespiratory health benefits
Target Heart Rate Zone-the heart rate range that should be reached during exercise to gain cardiorespiratory health benefits, 60-85% of your maximum heart rate
Heredity-characteristics that are passed from parents to their offspring
Hydration-a sufficient amount of water; to restore/maintain fluid balance

Hygiene-a condition promoting clean, sanitary practices; “personal hygiene”
Immune System-a network of tissues, organs, and cells that fight pathogens; protection from disease
Intensity-how hard you work at the activity per session
Jog-a slow steady run
Leap-to jump off one foot and land on the opposite foot, extending legs in air while having both feet off the ground

Leisure Activity-choosing an activity for enjoyment i.e. walking, gardening, hiking, golfing, cycling
Life Goals-the ability to set expectations for a healthy life
Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)-is the highest number of times your heart should beat per minute while doing any physical activity
Metabolism-the amount of energy required to maintain the body of an individual in a resting state

Motivation-the desire to take action

Muscular Endurance-the ability of the muscles to perform physical tasks over a period of time without becoming fatigued
Muscular Strength-the amount of force a muscle can exert
Muscular System-accounts for all of the ways that the parts of the body move, protects joints, and helps create heat to keep body warm
Nervous System-body’s control center and communications network; it consists of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
Nicotine-addictive drug found in tobacco leaves

Nutrient-a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth
Nutritional Facts-food label indicating value of contents
Obesity-a Body Mass Index, BMI, score greater than 30
One Mile Run-a test for cardiovascular fitness
Osteoporosis-a disease in which the bones deteriorate and become weak

Overhand-(see throw)-executed with the hand brought forward and down from above the level of the shoulder: an overhand pitch; an overhand stroke
PACER-stands for Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and is a test for cardiovascular fitness
Pass-to move a ball or object from one teammate to another
Peer Pressure-is a feeling that you should do something because that is what your friends want
Physical Activity-movement using the larger muscles of the body; includes sports, dance, and activities of daily life; may be done to accomplish a task, for enjoyment, or to improve physical fitness

Physical Best-the educational component of a comprehensive health-related fitness education program which is to help young people develop the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors that lead to physically active, healthy lifestyles
Physical Education- providing of accurate information that teaches about physical activity in which students learn, practice and are assessed on developmentally appropriate motor skills, social skills, and knowledge
Physical Fitness-the ability of the body to perform daily physical activities without getting out of breath, sore, or overly tired
Physical Health-refers to the way your body functions; proper nutrition and sleep, regular exercise, recommended body weight
Progression-rule that states that the amount and intensity of physical activity needs to be increased gradually

Protein-a nutrient that builds and repairs body cells
Punt-a kick in which the ball is dropped from the hands and kicked before it touches the ground
Push-Up-an assessment that measures strength and muscular endurance of arms, chest, and shoulders
RDA-(Recommended Dietary Allowances)-recommended nutrient intakes that will meet the needs of almost all healthy people
Range of Motion (ROM)-amount of movement one can make in a joint

Recreation-activity that refreshes and recreates; activity that renews your health and spirits by enjoyment and relaxation
Resistance-the force that acts against a muscle
Resistance Training-the lifting of weights to build strength; also called weight training
Respiratory System-brings oxygen in and lets carbon dioxide out of the body
Resting Heart Rate (RHR)-the number of times the heart beats per minute while at rest

R.I.C.E.: A formula in which each letter represents a step in the treatment of a minor injury:

R - Rest - rest and immobilize the injured part
I - Ice - a sprain or strain should be immersed in cold water or covered with ice in a towel or plastic bag. Ice for 20 minutes immediately after the injury to help reduce swelling and pain several times a day. Be careful not to leave the ice on longer than 20 minutes or leaving it on longer than 20 minutes; this can cause skin damage.
C - Compression -use an elastic bandage to wrap the injury to limit the swelling. Compression should not be too tight and should be taken off periodically so as not to restrict blood flow.
E - Elevation-raise the body part above the level of the heart helps reduce swelling

Sit-and-Reach-a measurement of flexibility
Sit-Ups-a measurement of strength and endurance of the abdominal muscles
Skip-step-hop. Hop on left foot, right leg bent and lift into the air, land on right foot, left leg bent and lift into the air, continue pattern
Slide-stand with shoulder facing the wall, right foot extends to the side away from body and left foot crosses mid-plane toward right foot. Side-together.
Social Skills-specific strategies to interact with family, friends and others

Sport-an activity involving physical exertion and skill that is governed by a set of rules or customs and often undertaken competitively
Sportsmanship-fairness in following the rules of the game
Target Heart Rate (THR)-a heart rate that should be reached during exercise to gain cardiorespiratory health benefits
Target Heart Rate Zone-the heart rate range that should be reached during exercise to gain cardiorespiratory health benefits, 60-85% of your maximum heart rate

Vitamin-a nutrient needed in small amounts for growth and repair of body cells
Warm Up-any activity that gets the body ready for exercise and helps prevent injury
Weight Training-the lifting of weights to build strength; also called resistance training
Workout-physical activity to improve your fitness

Suggested Muscles by Grade 8: abdominals, bicep, tricep, pectorals, hamstring, quadricep, gluteal, back muscles, deltoids, trapezius, gastrocnemius, rectus abdominis, latissimus dorsi

Suggested Skeletal by Grade 8: cranium, clavicle, sternum, vertebra, ribs, pelvis, humerus, ulna, radius, femur, tibia, fibula, patella, scapula